American CRS Equipment - Plating Systems, DC & Pulse Plating Rectifiers
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Substantial research confirms that a single and unique pulse frequency is required to plate a particular hole diameter in a panel of a particular thickness with 100% throwing power. Since most, if not all panels have multiple hole sizes and/or various size blind vias, it is necessary to have multiple frequencies of pulses to plate each feature size with 100% throwing power. When using a single frequency pulse rectifier a “batch program is commonly used where the plating frequency is changed a number of times during the plating cycle. With this approach, a single frequency is used for some minutes, and then changed to another frequency. This method of batch programming is a way to “average” the plating on the board’s various features; however, once non-uniform plating has begun, it cannot be corrected later in the plating process.

Furthermore, as the aspect ratios increase, the single frequency on a conventional pulse rectifier must also increase to obtain 100% throwing power, however, for very high aspect ratios there is a point beyond which classic PPR waveforms alone are inadequate, and do not achieve 100% throwing power. To overcome the limitations of these single frequency pulse rectifiers, American CRS's Wave Switching Technology (WST) complex waveform, multi-frequency pulse rectifier was developed, which is specifically designed for advanced technology, multi-featured, high value-added printed circuit boards.

WST combines the benefits of both pulse and pulse reverse rectifiers,
   allowing users to program in “rests” within the forward and/or reverse
   pulses. This drastically improves the throwing power on very high
   aspect ratio applicatons.

WST allows the user to run a multi-frequency waveform with up to five
   (5) pulse/pulse reverse waveforms each second.

The WST multi-frequency waveform eliminates the need for “batching”
   cycles and the ongoing demand for process engineering assistance.

95% of all WST users require only 1 or 2 waveforms for ALL products
   in their factory
WST eliminates the worries about cable inductance common with
   single-frequency, square waveform PPR rectifiers and, therefore,
   the need for costly coaxial cable
New and refurbished WST systems are available.
WST Makes pulse plating SIMPLE!!!

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